Big tech, or more precisely Ad tech, companies have been heavily criticised for exploiting users’ personal data to serve targetted ads for promoting brands, services and products. The rampant buying and selling of users’ personal data and excessive use of the data have degraded the reputation of big tech companies. For example, the total GDPR fines imposed in Q3 2021 were 20 times greater than for Q1 and Q2 2021 combined reaching nearly €1 billion. The companies included Google, Amazon, Facebook, Whatsapp and others.